Canine calcium oxalate urolithiasis: Frequency of Whewellite and Weddellite stones from 1979 to 2015

Abstract — This study reports on a retrospective evaluation of epidemiological data from calcium oxalate stones in dogs differentiated into calcium oxalate monohydrate (Whewellite, Wh) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (Weddellite, Wd). Of the 22 456 uroliths submitted from 1979 to 2015, 6690 (29.8%) were composed of . 70% calcium oxalate. During the observation period, the proportion of calcium oxalate stones rose from 4% (1979) to 46% (2015). Of all the calcium oxalate stones, 31.0% were Wh and 49.4% Wd, while 19.6% were a mixture of Wh and Wd. The dogs with Wh stones were significantly older than the dogs with Wd stones. Several breeds have increased odds ratios (OR) for either Wh (5 highest OR: Norwich terrier, keeshond, Norfolk terrier, fox terrier, sheltie) or Wd (Pomeranian, borzoi, Japanese spitz, Finnish lapphund, bichon frise). Analytical differentiation of the calcium oxalate stones into Wh and Wd is important for understanding the cause and possible treatment and prevention of the uroliths.

A. Hesse, M. Frick, H. Orzekowsky, K. Failing, R. Neiger (2018), Can. Vet. J. 59: 1305-1310